Diabetes – Symptoms, Causes, Types & Treatment of Diabetes

Diabetes is a dreaded chronic condition that involves high glucose levels in the blood. This happens when the pancreas stops producing insulin. When the body is unable to produce sufficient insulin or secretion, it causes diabetes.

Diabetes in Women:

Diabetes is common in both genders but, research has shown the increased number of women diabetic patients. The reason is women receive more aggressive treatment for cardiovascular risk factors. Among the heart diseases, women face different types of heart problems as compared to men. Hormonal changes occur more frequently in women than in men. Many vaginal infections are caused due to diabetes. The rate of obesity in women is greater than in men. Obesity is one of the major cause of type 2 diabetes, hence diabetes is more common in women than in men.

Types of diabetes:

There are two types of diabetes:

  • Type 1 Diabetes
  • Type 2 Diabetes.

 
Both types of diabetes affect the glucose level in blood. Let’s discuss each type of Diabetes in detail:

Type 1 Diabetes:

People with type 1 diabetes do not produce insulin. The increased sugar levels in the blood increase the complications. This type of diabetes is also called juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes. Research has shown that this type of diabetes is incurable. Type 1 diabetes is caused when the beta cells in the pancreas are destroyed by the immune system. Beta cells in the pancreas produce insulin. When the beta cells are damaged, no insulin is produced. This causes type 1 diabetes.

Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes:

There are many subtle or sometimes severe symptoms of type 1 diabetes. Let’s enlist a few them:

  • The patient feels nausea and sometimes vomiting
  • Stomachache
  • Urge to urinate frequently
  • Increased thirst for water
  • Increased appetite
  • Dizziness and tiredness
  • Fatigue in bones and joints
  • Rapid breathing
  • Dramatic weight loss
  • Skin problems
  • Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
  • Dry mouth.

 

Complications Caused Due to Type 1 Diabetes:

Increased sugar levels in the blood cause many complications in the human body. These complications adversely affect major body functions. These problems increase with time and with the increase in patient age. Following are some complications caused by type 1 diabetes:

  • Increased risk of heart attack.
  • Blurred vision may lead to blindness.
  • Increased blood pressure.
  • Increased sugar levels.
  • High cholesterol level leading to cardiac diseases.
  • Nerve pain leading to diabetic neuropathy, etc.

 

Causes of type 1 Diabetes:

The immune system is the best defender in the human body. It is responsible to fight and wipe off foreign invaders, thus protects the body from bacteria and viruses. In patients with type 1 diabetes, the immune systems do a wrong job. Rather than protecting the body from foreign harmful invaders, it attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells. These beta cells are produced by the pancreas. This attack stops the insulin production in the human body. As a consequence, type 1 diabetes is caused.

Risk Factors for Type 1 Diabetes:

The most prominent risk factor of Type 1 diabetes are:

  • Family history
  • Infections of illness
  • Previous pancreatic diseases
  • The race of the patient, etc.

 

Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes:

Patients with type 1 diabetes do not produce insulin. As the body does not produce insulin, the patient needs to take insulin to help the body maintain sugar level in blood. The level of insulin to take varies from patient to patient. The diabetes consultant needs to figure out the healthy range of insulin intake. Besides this, a healthy diet and proper exercise can be proved beneficial to harness the adverse effects of type 1 diabetes.

Exercise and Nutrition for Type 1 Diabetes:

A healthy diet and proper exercise can be proved beneficial to harness the adverse effects of type 1 diabetes. Such patients need to eat proper meals along with snacks to stabilize blood sugar levels. A diabetes consultant can help to prepare a proper diet chart to follow. Daily exercise is also essential to maintain sugar levels in the blood. These need to be monitored carefully.

Type 2 Diabetes:

Type 2 diabetes happens due to the lack of insulin production in the body. It is also called diabetes mellitus type 2. It is a long-term metabolic disorder. It leads to increased sugar levels in the blood. The symptoms of type 2 diabetes come up slowly. Among type 1 and type 2 diabetes, type 2 is more common. Research has shown that among the diabetes patients, 90% of patients are type 2 sufferers.

Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes:

Symptoms of type 2 diabetes come up slowly and gradually. There are many subtle or sometimes severe symptoms of type 2 diabetes. Let’s enlist a few them:

  • Kidney failure
  • Diabetic retinopathy leading to blindness
  • Amputations
  • Urge to urinate frequently
  • Increased hunger
  • Dizziness and tiredness
  • Faintness
  • Fatigue in bones and joints
  • strokes
  • Dramatic weight loss
  • Poor blood flow
  • Increased thirst
  • Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
  • Heart failure.

 

Complications Caused Due to Type 2 Diabetes:

Like type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes also badly affects the body functions. This chronic disease is associated with a ten year shorter life expectancy. The reason is the major complications it causes in the human body. Following are a few major complications caused by type 2 diabetes:

  • Increased risk of cardiovascular diseases causes a life threat
  • Kidney failure
  • Non-traumatic blindness
  • Cognitive dysfunction
  • Dementia
  • Different infections
  • Sexual dysfunction
  • Vascular dementia, etc.

 

Causes of Type 2 Diabetes:

Many genetic and routine factors are responsible for causing type 2 diabetes. Some causes are controllable and some are uncontrollable. For example, obesity is the most prominent cause of type 2 diabetes. By taking a balanced and well-nutritious diet, obesity can be controlled. Increased age and gender are said to be uncontrollable factors of causing type 2 diabetes. This type of diabetes reduces the insulin production in the human body and the body fails to effectively use the insulin produced. This leads to an increase in sugar levels in the blood.

Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes:

There are many factors that increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. Let’s enlist a few of them:

  • Excessive weight
  • Inactivity and passiveness
  • Poor nutritional status
  • Lifestyle
  • Family history
  • Geography
  • Age
  • Increased belly fat
  • Medical conditions, etc.

 

Treatment of type 2 diabetes:

Unlike type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes is curable and reversible. This can be done by altering the present lifestyle and controlled diet. Certain medications are also being used to help the body to use insulin more effectively. Insulin injections are also being used by many patients and prescription of doctors. Thus, a healthy diet and proper exercise can be proved beneficial to lessen the adverse effects of type 2 diabetes.

Exercise and nutrition for type 2 diabetes:

Overweight people are more vulnerable to type 2 diabetes. A healthy diet and proper exercise can be proved beneficial to alter the adverse effects of type 2 diabetes. The sufferers need to eat proper meals along with snacks to maintain blood sugar levels. A diabetes consultant can help to prepare a proper diet plan to follow. Daily exercise is also essential to maintain sugar levels in the blood. These need to be monitored timely. The prevention is possible by keeping an eye on the frequently changing blood sugar levels.

Difference between daily life of type 2 diabetics and non-diabetics:

Like other diseases, diabetes also puts an impact on quality of life a person lives. It affects the autonomy and well-being of the sufferers. As discussed earlier, diabetes patients are prone to many cardiovascular diseases leading to the real-life threat of the infected person. Diabetes leads to major complications leading to increased and irrecoverable social costs. Functional impairment leads to lack of concentration. As a consequence, major drawbacks are being faced by the sufferers. Increased risk to blindness leads to lack of concentration on daily tasks. Impaired quality of life leads to threatening life situation.

Conclusion:

Diabetes is a lifelong disease which causes very low or no production of insulin. Diabetes adversely affects the social and professional life of the sufferer. This chronic disease can be prevented by taking a balanced diet and proper exercise habits. A dietitian can be consulted to prevent this disease. Proper intake of nutritional food and regular body activity can surely help to avoid diabetes.


References and Citations:

https://yalehealth.yale.edu/more/diabetes
https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/what-is-diabetes
https://www.health.harvard.edu/diseases-and-conditions/type-2-diabetes-mellitus-
https://dtc.ucsf.edu/types-of-diabetes/
https://diabetes.ufl.edu/education/patients/my-diabetes/nutrition/type-1-diabetes/

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